•Human resource managers are responsible for hiring and developing employees.
•They are typically involved in human resource planning, recruiting, and selecting employees, training and development, designing compensation and benefit systems, formulating performance appraisal systems, and discharging low-performing and problem employees.
•Administrative, or general, managers are not associated with any particular management specialty.
•They tend to be generalists; they have some basic familiarity with all functional areas of management rather than specialized training in any one area.
•Public relations managers, for example, deal with the public and media for firms.
•Research and Development managers coordinate the activities of scientists and engineers working on scientific projects in organizations.
BASIC MANAGERIAL ROLES AND SKILLS
Regardless of their level or area within an organization, all managers must play certain roles and exhibit certain skills if they are to be successful.
According to Henry Mintzberg, managers play ten different roles and that these roles fall into three basic categories: interpersonal, informational and decisional.
•Interpersonal roles entail the role of figurehead, leader, and liaison, which involve dealing with other people.
•The manager is often asked to serve as a figurehead—taking visitors to dinner, attending ribbon-cutting ceremonies, and the like. These activities are typically more ceremonial and symbolic than substantive.
•The manager is asked to serve as a leader—hiring, training, and motivating employees. That is, encouraging employees to improve productivity.
•Managers can have a liaison role. This role involves serving as a coordinator or link between people, groups, or organizations.
The roles of monitor, disseminator, and spokesperson, which involve the processing of information.
•The first informational role is that of monitor, one who actively seeks information that may be of value. The manager questions subordinates, is receptive of unsolicited information, and attempts to be as well informed as possible.
•The manager is also disseminator of information, transmitting relevant information back to others in the workplace.
•The spokesperson formally relays information to people outside the unit or outside the organization.
Decisional roles are the roles of entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, and negotiator, which primarily relate to making decisions.
•Entrepreneur is the voluntary initiator of change.
•Manager responds to her role as disturbance handler by handling such problems as strikes, copyright infringements, and energy shortages.
•As resource allocator, the manager decides how resources are distributed, and with whom he or she will work most closely.
•As negotiator, manager enters into negotiations with other groups or organizations as a representative of the company. (e. g., with union contract, an agreement with a consultant, or a long-term relationship with a supplier). It may also be internal: e.g., mediate a dispute between subordinates, negotiate with other department.
One classic study revealed three important types of managerial skills: technical, interpersonal, and conceptual.
•Technical skills are skills necessary to accomplish or understand the specific kind of work being done in an organization.
•Project engineers, physicians, and accountants all have the technical skills necessary for their respective profession.
•They each develop basic technical skills by completing recognized programs of study at colleges and universities.
•These skills are specially important for first-line managers.
•The ability to communicate with, understand, and motivate both individuals and groups is referred to as interpersonal skills.
•Managers spend considerable time interacting with people both inside and outside the organization.
•Thus managers must be able to get along with subordinates, peers, and those at higher levels of the organization.
•A manager must also be able to work with suppliers, customers, investors, and others outside the organization.
•It is the manager’s ability to think in the abstract.
•Managers need the mental capacity to understand the overall workings of the organization and its environment, to grasp how all the parts of the organization fit together, and to view the organization in a holistic manner.
•A manager’s ability to visualize the most appropriate response to a situation.
•As a physician, a manager can diagnose and analyze a problem in the organization by studying its symptoms and then developing a solution.
•The Science and the Art of Management
The Science of Management:
•Many management problems and issues can be approached in ways that are rational, logical, objective, and systematic.
•Managers can gather data, facts and objective information.
•They can use quantitative models and decision-making techniques to arrive at a ‘correct’ decision.
•They need to take such a scientific approach to solving problems whenever possible, especially when they are dealing with relatively routine and straightforward issues.
The Art of Management:
•Even though managers may try to be scientific as much as possible, they must often make decisions and solve problems on the basis of intuition, experience, instinct, and personal insights.
•Relying heavily on conceptual and interpersonal skills, a manager may have to decide between multiple courses of action that look equally attractive.
Classical Management Perspective
•Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856—1915) is said to be the father of scientific management.
•Scientific management is concerned with improving the performance of individual workers. The four steps of scientific management are:
—Develop a science for each element of the job to replace old rule-of-thumb methods.
—Scientifically select employees and then train them to do the job as described in step 1.
—Supervise employees to make sure they follow the prescribed methods for performing their jobs.
—Continue to plan the work, but use workers to actually get the work done.
•Administrative management focuses on managing the total organization.
•The primary contributors to administrative management were Henri Fayol, Lyndall Urwick, Max Weber, and Chester Bernard.
•Henri Fayol was administrative management’s most articulate spokesperson. His fourteen principles of management are as follows:
1. Division of labor;
2. Authority and responsibility
4. Unity of command;
5. Unity of direction;
6. Subordination of individuals to the common goal;
9. Scalar chain;
14. Team spirit.