Jute Industries of Bangladesh

 Jute – The Golden Fibre:

Jute, a natural fibre, has been in use for various purposes over the centuries throughout the world. It is the bark of a slender tropical plant belonging to Tiliaceae family with two species Corchorus capsularis and Corchorus olitorius. Breakthrough in textile technology during the industrial revolution helped jute emerges as an amazing fabric from its traditional image of a raw material for cordage and rope. Since then the innumerable additions, modifications and innovations in manufacturing process turned jute into as indispensable material for an unconventional uses. The process of developing diversified use of jute still goes on unabated despite the challenge and threat from its synthetic substitutes.

Jute (Corchorus capsularis & Corchorus olitorius), Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) and Roselle (H. sabdariffa var (Altissima) are vegetable bast fibre plants next to cotton in importance. In the trade there are usually two names of jute, White and Tossa. Corchorus capsularis is called White Jute and Corchorus olitorius is called Tossa Jute. In India & Bangladesh Roselle is usually called Mesta. Jute fibres are finer and stronger than Mesta and are, therefore, better in quality.

Depending on demand, price and climate, the annual production of jute and allied fibres in the world remains around 3 million tonnes.

The fibre finds its use in the producing as well as in consuming countries in the agricultural, industrial, commercial and domestic fields. Sacking and Hessians (Burlap) constitute the bulk of the manufactured products. Sacking is commonly used as packaging material for various agricultural commodities viz., rice, wheat, vegetables, corn, coffee beans etc. Sacking and Hessian Cloth are also used as packing materials in the cement and fertilizer manufacturing industries (New J.H. 1993). Fine Hessian is used as carpet backing and often made into big bags for packaging other fibres viz. cotton and wool.

Origin:

After a lot of debate, there seems to be an agreement that White Jute originated in the Indo-Burma region and Tossa Jute in Africa. Kenaf originated in Angola in Africa and Roselle originated in Sudan of Africa (Singh, D.P. 1983). China is also considered as one of the places of origin of Jute. According to some scholars, some provinces of the southern parts of China are the secondary centres of origin of’ Tossa and White Jute. (Peikun Huang 1992).

 

Major Producers:

 

Bangladesh, India, China, Myanmar, Nepal and Thailand are at present the major producers of Jute, Kenaf and Roselle fibres. India, Bangladesh and China are the large producers.

Climate:

 

Jute cultivation requires specific climate and land. It requires early rains in March, May and June and intermittent rain and sunlight thereafter till August, temperature between 28°C and 35°C and humidity between 70% and 90%. This type of climate is available in areas between 30° Latitude North and South of the earth. Kenaf and Roselle grow almost throughout the world both in tropical and temperate areas.

Soil:

 

Soil conducive to producing jute are of three types:

 

1) Loamy soil

2) Clayey soil

3) Sandy soil

Loamy soil usually produces the best fibre. the clayey soil yields a short crop. Also plants grown on clayey soil do not ret uniformly. The sandy soil produces coarse fibre

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Bangladesh Jute Mills Corporation:

Climate bestowed Bangladesh with the opportunity to become the natural home of the best quality Jute and for this Bangladesh is the world’s largest grower of quality Jute. This gives Bangladesh Jute Mills Corporation an advantage over other Jute goods manufacturer to produce and cater the needs of quality jute goods world over. Bangladesh Jute Mills Corporation, well known as BJMC is the world’s biggest state owned manufacturing and exporting organization of all kinds of Jute goods. Research, innovative experimentation towards product development and modernization approaches are the other contributing elements to its unmatched success it has established over the years.

 

End Uses of Jute Goods

  Jute Goods can ideally be used as:

  • Bags and sacks for packing almost all kinds of agricultural produces, minerals, cement etc.
  • Packs for packing wool and cotton;
  • Wrapping materials / fabrics;
  • Carrier and backing fabric for carpet and linoleum;
  • Cordage and twines;
  • Webbing to cover inner springs in auto-seats and upholster furniture;
  • Cargo separator in ship;
  • Cloth for mine ventilation and partition;
  • Filling material in cable;
  • Roofing and floor covering apparel;
  • Footwear lining;
  • Wall covering and furnishing fabric; m. Fashion accessories;
  • Soil erosion control fabric and many more.

Advantage of Use of Jute Goods

Jute, having been the most environment-friendly natural fibre because of its inherent unique properties has counts of advantages over other man-made artificial polymer fibre products.

  • Under stress jute extends only 0.5% to its stable form and so gives wonderful dimensional stability.
  • The hairy surface of jute fabric gives it a capacity to grip any surface it comes in contact with. They can, for this reason, be stacked high and wide without any risk of slippage.
  •  The ignition temperature of jute is 193˚c. It thus remains very stable up to near ignition point. Even at boiling temperature, its intact physical properties guard it from undergoing possible distortion.
  • Jute being hygroscopic and auriferous permits normal breathing and humidity to the contents and so ensures their storage without deterioration.
  • Hooks may be used freely and easily on jute products during handling as its innate properties cover up the pierced holes immediately after. It thus prevents seepage loss of contents during transportation and allows itself to be re-used over and again
  • Jute being natural is biodegradable. It does not plug the natural pore of the earth soil and surface.
  • When burned, it emits the same fume as a burning wood as we know, is nothing dangerous.
  • It has no adverse effect on human body and the mother nature as a whole.

Jute Growing Area In Bangladesh

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PRODUCTS Over View

 – Food Grade Jute Bags

 Product Range

a) Sacking Cloth:

Width:22″-30″; Weight: 11-24 ozs. Weaving: Plain and Twill; Colour: Natural; Packing: 500-1000 yds./bale

b) Sacking Bag:

Sizes: As per requirement; Weight: Standard or light; Sewing: Overhead Dry Sewn, Overhead Tar sewn, Safety sewn (optional); Colour: Natural, Bleached; Branding: Up to 3 colour; Packing: 200-500 bags 1 bale (Flat or folded).

Some Standard Sackinq Baqs:

Twill Bags:
A. Twill bag (44″x26.5″ – 2.62 lbs.), B.Twill Bag (44″x26.5″ – 2.25 lbs.), L.Twill Bag (44″x26.5″ – 2.50 Ibs), Binola Bag (44″x26.5″ – 2.00 lbs.), Corn Sack (41″x31″ – 1.75 to 2.15 lbs.), Cement Bag (29″x20″ – 1.25 lbs.), Coffee Bag (40″x26″ – 2.00 lbs.), Grain Sack 60″x30″ – 3.25 lbs.), Sugar Bag (48″x28″ – 2.50 lbs.).

Double Warp Bags:
Heavycees (40″x28″ – 2.25 lbs.), Lightcees (40″x20″ – 2.00 lbs.), D.W. Flour Bag 58″x28″ – 2.25 lbs.), D.W Salt Bag (45″x26.5″ – 1.75 lbs.), D.W Nitrate Bag (35″x26″ – 1.25 lbs.).

a) Hessian Cloth:

Width: 22″ to 80″, Weight:5 to 14 ozs./sq.yd., Colour: Natural, Semi-brite, Full-brite, Bleached and Dyed; Packing: 700 – 2000 yds / bale or in roll.

b) Hessian Baq:

Sizes: Available as per buyer’s requirement; Sewing: Herackle and Overhead (safety sewing optional); Colour: Natural, Semi-brite, Full-brite, Bleached, Dyed; Branding: upto 3 colour; Packing: 500-1000 bags flat or folded per bale.
 

c) Some Standard Bags:

Australian Bran Bag, Fertilizer Bag, Japanese Rice Bag, Onion Pocket, Potato Bag, Shopping Bag ete. Carpet (Secondary) Backinq Cloth (CBC) Width: 47″ – 203″; Weight: 5.5 – 9.0 ozs./sq.yd.; Packing: 500 – 1000 yds.1 roll. Jute Yarn and Twine Quality: CB, Hessian and Sacking; Ply: 1- 3; Count:8 – 20 lbs.; packing: Precision / Mackroll in hank.

Wall Coverinq Cloth:

Width: 40″ – 145″; Weight: 8 – 10.5 ozs.; Packing: 300 – 1000 yds./ roll. Wool Pack
Qualities: Standard wool pack, Australian New Improved Wool Pack, New Zealand Wool Pack, Mini-Wool Pack, Coffin Type Wool Pack; Packing:25 – 50 packs / bale.

Tarpaulin and Canvas Cloth:
Width:36″ – 45″; Weight: 14 – 20 ozs.; Porter & Shots: Tarpaulin 10×10, Canvas 14×14, packing: 1000 yds. / bale.

Jute Soil Erosion Control Fabric:
Width: 1.22 m; Weight: 610 gms. / m; Warp: 6.5 ends / 10 cm.; Weft: 4.5 ends / 10 cm.; Packing: 600 – 900 m / bale.

Jute felt:
Types: Single sided (SS) & Double Sided (DS) needle punched felt; Width: 54″; Thickness: 1/4″ & 3/8′ packing: 25 yds. / roll.

Rot Proof Fabric and Baq:
Normal Jute Fabric and Bag treated with anti – rot chemicals to impart extra longevity for use in adverse conditions.

Scrim Cloth:
Width: 27″ – 80″; weight: 5 – 20 ozs./ sq. yd.; Packing: 1000 – 2000 yds. / roll. Jute Mat:
Width: 3 feet, Length: 150 feet; Quality; Plain & Design; Weight: 2.25 – 2.50 lbs. / yd.; Packing: 150 feet / roll; Use: Both side.

Jute Diversified Products:
Various types of jute and jute blended products for household and furnishing uses.

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Notes :

1. Prices given above are in US Dollars per 100 Yds/Bags FOB Bangladesh Ports.
2. Differential Chart issued by BJMC on the 3rd Oct’96 along with its subsequent amendments will be applicable for price differentials.
3. Domestic price may be obtained from BJMC Local Sales Desk.
4. Prices will remain unchanged until further orders.

Jute Industries  at a Galance

►Dhaka Zone:

Jute Industries  at a Galance

►Dhaka Zone:

►Khulna Zone:

►Chittagong Zone:

►Non Jute Mills but work for jute based product:

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NON-JUTE MILLS (RUNNING)

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MILLS FOR PRIVATIZATION.

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Bangladesh Producing & Consumption::: …

ANNEX-2

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ANNEX-3

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FIGURE-1

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ANNEX-4

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ANNEX-7

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