General Banking: Overall Process of Telegraphic Transfer (TT)

Chapter-One: Introduction

Origin of Report:

This report is based on an internship program. IBTRA arranges internship program to gather practical knowledge about banking activities followed by IBBL for University students as Universities conducted with different organization after the completion of theoretical courses of program of Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA). A group of interns must carry out a specific project, which is assigned by the IBTRA. In this particular report, I am an internee of the previously mentioned program and the concerned organization is Islamic Bank Bangladesh Limited (IBBL) which is a prominent private and the first Bank of Bangladesh that based on Islamic Shariah. Hence I am placed in Darus Salam Road Branch of Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited from January 25 to April 11 2007. In way of delegation, responsibility of carrying out the study has conferred upon the concerned interns.

 

Report Background:

The practical orientation in different organization is the final term requirement of BBA program. Hence I am selected for the Islamic Bank Bangladesh Limited (IBBL). As instructed by Janab Md. Habibur Rahman I am assigned to work in Islamic Bank Bangladesh Limited, Darus Salam Road Branch. And since then I had started our practical orientation program in General Banking, Investment & Foreign Exchange department of that particular branch of IBBL and successfully complete with lots of solid work experience. And based on that I prepared this report where I tried to mention every single point that I gather from there.

 

Report Objective:

The first objective of writing the report is fulfilling the partial requirement of the BBA program. In this report, I have attempted to give an overview of Islamic Bank Bangladesh Limited in general banking, specially the process of TT. The study aims at some objectives, which are as follows:

O         Understanding  the  differences  between  Islamic  banking  system   and  Commercial banking systems.

O         Understanding how an Islamic Bank runs its business without interest.

O         How an Islami Bank earns its profits through investment .

O         What are its general banking systems.

O        The overall process of Telegraphic Transfer (TT).

O       Understanding the knowledge of Islam.

O        Identifying the problem of Islami Bank.

O        Recommending the problem.

O       Understanding the overall picture of IBBL.

 

Methodology:

 

IBBL is one of the largest and successful banks in Bangladesh. The report is based on both primary and secondary research.


Primary Source:

Primary data was collected form the employees and staffs.


Secondary Source:

The secondary data has been collected from the Annual Report, Magazines and Journals.

Population:

All the Branches of IBBL located in everywhere in Bangladesh has been taken into consideration as population.

Sample:

Islami Bank Bangladesh Ltd, Darus Salam Road Branch is the vivacious sample.

Data Collection Method:

For the organization, part information has been collected through different published articles, journal.

Formal questionnaire for data collection is not used. Information is collected through informal discussions with Relationship managers & respective Unit heads.


Data Analysis:

 

In the organization part information is provided in a descriptive manner.

 

Scope of Study:

The scope of the organization part covers the organizational structure, background, and objectives, functional departmentalization and business performance of IBBL as a whole and the main part covers operational set-up of IBBL.

 

Limitation:

Objective of the practical orientation program is to have practical exposure for the students. My permanent status was for only two months, which was somehow not sufficient enough to gather adequate experience of such vast banking business. After working whole day in the office it was very much difficult and also impossible to study again the theoretical aspects of banking. Finally as the banks renovation activities was going on so the physical working condition was not healthy enough that we thought it would be.

 

Other limitation-

O         Eight weeks of time is not enough for the study.

O         The staffs of the branch were some time so busy that they could not help us all time.

O         Preparing internship report is really troublesome.

O         This type of report preparation is expensive.

O         Collection of data was not smooth.

O         Analyzing with financial data is much more confusing and complicated than any  other data.

 

Chapter -Two: Concept as well as Profile of IBBL

 

Definition of Islamic Bank:

 

OIC:

“An Islamic Bank is a Financial Institution whose statutes, rules, and regulations expressly state its commitments to the Principles of Islamic Shariah and to the banning of the receipt and payment of interest on any of its operation”

 

Bangladesh Bank License for IBBL operation:

 

“The Bank will operate within the framework of the existing Banking Laws, rules and regulations subject to such minor adjustment that may be considered for an Islamic Bank to function. In addition to the above all requirements of Banking Companies ordinance 1962(as adapted in Bangladesh) as also relevant provisions of Bangladesh Bank order, 1972(p.o No.127 of 1972) and instructions issued from time to time there under by Bangladesh Bank will also apply to the bank.”

 

According to Islamic Banking Act 1983 of Malaysia: “An Islamic Bank is a company which carrying on Islamic Banking Business. …Islamic Banking Business means banking business whose aims and operations do not involve any element which is not approved by the Religion of Islam.”

 

Historical Background of Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited:

In August 1974, Bangladesh signed the charter of Islamic Development Bank and committed itself to reorganize its economic and financial system as per Islamic Shariah. For the favorable attitude of the government of the people’s republic of Bangladesh, at present six Islamic Banks operate in Bangladesh Financial   market. These are:

 

i)                 Islamic Bank Bangladesh Ltd.

ii)                The Oriental Bank Ltd. (Al-Baraka Bank Bangladesh Ltd.)

iii)               Al – Arafah Islami Bank Ltd.

iii)                Social Investment Bank Ltd.

iv)                Shahjalal  Islami Bank Ltd.

v)                  Exim Bank Ltd.

Besides Prime Bank, Dhaka Bank, South East Bank, the Premier Bank, the Jamuna Bank, HSBC Bank and Standard Chartered Bank also have opened Islamic banking branches.

Islami Bank Bangladesh Ltd.  was incorporated as the first shariah based interest free bank in south  East Asia on the 13 march, 1983 as a Public Company with limited liability under the Companies Act, 1913, started limited operation on 30 March, 1983 and introduced a full package of banking services in August, 1983. Its board objective is banking business under shariah. Its registered office is located in Dhaka with prior permission from the Bangladesh Bank, it open branches anywhere within and outside the country.

By December, 2006 IBBL opened 173 branches – all within Bangladesh. It is a joint venture of Bangladeshi and overseas capital in the ratio of thirty six to sixty four. Its overseas capital is owned by Islamic Development Bank (IDB), nine other institutions and three individuals of Arab nationality, while the local capital is owned by Government of Bangladesh (GOB), Investment Corporation of Bangladesh (ICB), four non – profit private institutions and a good number of private individuals. Its shares are quoted in the local stock markets. Being in high demand the shares are presently sold at 4.50 times higher than the face value, Authorized capital of the Bank is Tk. 3000 million and paid up capital of Tk.2304.00 million as year 2004.

 

Features of Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited:

The distinguishing features of Islamic Bank are:

1.         All activities are conducted on interest-free system according to Islamic Shariah principles.

2.         Investment is made through different modes as per Islamic Shariah.

3.         Investment-income of the Bank is shared with Mudaraba depositors according to an agreed upon ratio, ensuring a reasonably fair of return on their deposits.

4.         Aims to introduce a welfare-oriented banking system and also establish equity and justice in the field of all economic operations.

5.         Extend socio-economic and financial services to individuals of all economic backgrounds with strong commitment in rural upliftment.

6.         Plays a vital role in human resources development and employment–generation, particularly among the unemployed youths.

7.         Portfolio of investment and investment policy have been specially tailored to achieve balanced growth & equitable development through diversified investment operations particularly in the priority sectors and in the less developed areas of the national and international economy.

8.         Regular and effective guidance of powerful and highly     esteemed Shariah Council consisting of appropriate number of members representing Shariah Scholars.

2.4 Functions of Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited:

The most important objective of Islamic banking system is to establish equity and justice in arena of business and ensure equitable distribution of wealth and income. The sources of fund of the Islamic Bank include paid up capital and deposits. Deposits mobilized by the Islamic Bank may be categorized into three: Current deposits, ordinary savings deposits and investment term deposits (Chakma, Islami and Karmker, 1995). Like conventional banking no return is payable on current deposits while ordinary savings deposit holders are entitled to profit earned according to the return realized by the Bank on investment / use of proceeds of such deposits (chakma, Islami and Karmker, 1995). Investment on term deposit holders are entitled to proceeds from investment on the basis of signed agreement.

Islamic Bank’s modes of financing can be broadly classified into equity and debt instruments. While equity instruments are Mudarabah and Musharakah, debt-instruments arise from sale transactions. These fixed income instruments include Murabahah (cost-plus or mark-up sale), Bai-muajjal (price-deffered sale), Istisna / Salam (object deffered sale or prepaid sale) and Ijarah (leasing) (khan, 1991, Khalf and Khan, 1992, Ahmed, 2004 and Usmani, 1999). I outline the basic concepts and properties of this mode of investment below:

a)     Musharakah: Sharikah is a partnership between parties in which financial capital and / or labor act as shared inputs and profit is distributed according to the capital share of the partners or in some agreed upon ratio. The loss, however, is distributed according to the share of the capital. Though there can be different kinds of partnerships based on money, labor, and reputation, one case of Sharikah is participation financing or Musharakah in which partners share both in capital and management of the business enterprise. Thus partners in Musharakah have both control right and claims to the profit.

b)    Mudarabah (or qirad or muqadarah) : Mudarabah is similar to the concept of silent partnership in which financial capital is provided by one or more partner(s) (Rab ul mal) and the work is carried out by the other partner(s) Mudarib. The funds are used in some activity for a fixed period of time (Siddiqi, 1987). The financiers and the managers of the project share the profits in an agreed upon ratio. The loss, however, is borne by the financiers according to their share in the capital. The manager’s loss is not getting any reward for his services, as the ‘Rab ul mal’ is sleeping partner; he/she has a claim on profit without any say in the management of the firm.

c)   Murabahah / Bai Muajjal: Murabahah is a sale contract at a mark-up. The seller adds a profit component (mark-up) to the cost of the item being sold. When the purchase is on credit and the payment for a good / asset is delayed, the contract is called Bai-muajjal. A variant would be a sale where the payments are made in installments. These contracts create debt that can have both short and long –term tenors. In these debt contracts, the supplier of the good has claims on a fixed amount that must be paid before arriving at profits.

d) Salam / Istisna: ‘Salam sale’ is an advance purchase or product-deferred                                                                                              sale of generic goods. In a Salam contract, the buyer of a product pays in advance for goods that is produced and delivered later. The contract applies mainly for agricultural goods.

Istisna contract is similar to the Salam contract with the difference that in Istisna the goods are produced according to the specifications given by the buyer. This applies mainly to manufactured goods and           real estate. Furthermore, in Istisna the payments can be made in installments over time with the progression of the production.

 

Note that in case of a firm Istisna can be used in a couple of ways. First, the firm can get funds to finance its working capital needs. This Istisna contract is a debt contract that can be used only if the financier is willing to purchase the goods at the stipulated time of delivery. The second approach would be for the firm to ask the financier to provide asset (like real estate) and the payments are made over a period of time in future. In this case the financier may need to have a parallel Istisna and sub-contract the project to a third party for its completion.

 

e) Ijarah: Ijarah is a lease contract in which the lessee pays rent to the lesser for use of asset (usufruct). In Ijarah the ownership and the right to use an asset (usufruct) are separated. It falls under a sale-based contract as it involves the sale of asset (usufructs). A lease contract that results in the transfer of an asset to the lessee at the end of the contract is called ‘Ijarah  wa iqtina’ or ‘Ijarah muntahia bittamleek’.

‘Ijarah wa iqtina’ combine sale and leasing contracts and use the hire-purchase or rent-sharing principles. The ownership of the asset is transferred to the lessee as payments for the asset are also made along with the rent. After the contract period is over, the lessee assumes the ownership of the asset.

 

Profile of the Organization:

 

Bangladesh is one of the largest Muslim countries in the world. The People of this country are deeply committed to Islamic way of life as enshrined in the Holy Quran and the Sunnah. The establishment of Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited on March 13, 1983, is the true reflection of this inner urge of its people, which stared functioning with effect from March 30, 1983. It is committed to conduct all banking and investment activities on the basis of interest –free profit-loss sharing system. In doing so, it has unveiled a new horizon and ushered in a new silver lining of hope towards materializing a long cherished dream of the people of Bangladesh for doing their banking transactions in line with what is prescribed by Islam. With the active co-operation and participation of Islamic Development Bank (IDB) and some other Islamic banks, financial institutions, government bodies, Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited has now earned the unique position of a leading private commercial bank in Bangladesh.

 

Aims and objectives:

 

q  To conduct interest-free banking.

q  To Establish participatory banking instead of banking on debtor-creditor relationship.

q  To invest on profit and risk sharing basis.

q  To accept deposits on Mudaraba & Al-Wadeah basis.

q  To establish a welfare-oriented banking system.

q  To extend co-operation to the poor, the helpless and the low-income group for their economic enlistment.

q  To ply a vital role in human development and employment generation.

q  To contribute towards balanced growth and development of the country through investment operations particularly in the less developed areas.

q  To contribute in achieving the ultimate goal of Islamic economic system.

 

Corporate information’s:

 

As on 31st December 2004

Date of Incorporation: 13th Marc 1983

Inauguration of 1st Branch 30th March 1983 (Local office, Dhaka).

Formal Inauguration: 12th August 1983.

 

Share of Capital:

 

Local Shareholders:                            42.12%

Foreign Shareholders:                         57.88%

 

Authorized Capital                             Tk. 5000.00 million

Paid-up Capital                                   Tk.2,764.80 million

Deposit                                                107358.97 million (As on 31

Dec-2005)

Investment                                           Tk. 102148.33 million (As on 31                                                                                 Dec -2005)

Foreign Exchange Business                 Tk.68, 503.00 million (As on                                                                                       June-2005)

Number of Branches                             173 (As on 31 Dec-2006)

Number of Share holder                       2,304,000(As on 31-Dec-2004)

Manpower                                             5,713 (As on 30-June-2005)

 

Paid-up Capital and Reserve:

 

The Authorized Capital of the Bank is Taka 5,000.00 million and Paid-up

Capital is Taka 2764.80 million. The Paid-up Capital was Taka 67.50 million in 1983.The Reserve Fund of the Bank has been increasing steadily. On 31st December, 1983, it was Taka 0.36 million and stood at

 

Taka 303.57    million as on 31st December 1994

Taka 535.08    million as on 31st December 1995

Taka 759.39    million as on 31st December 1996

Taka 930.17    million as on 31st December 1997

Taka 1011.84 million as on 31st December 1998

Taka 1115.61  million as on 31st December 1999

Taka 2074.88  million as on 31st December 2000

Taka 1998.04  million as on 31st December 2001

Taka 2852.04  million as on 31st December 2002

Taka 3287.80  million as on 31st December 2003

Taka 4329.92  million as on 31st December 2004

Taka 5144.19  million as on 30th June         2005

Taka 9076.60  million as on 30th June         2006

 

Equity:

 

As per Capital Adequacy Policy prescribed by Bangladesh Bank, the Central Bank of the country, banks are to maintain 9.47(p)% capital on its Risk Weighted Assets against which present total equity of the Bank as TK. 7,613 on June 2005, December 31st, 2003 stood at Taka 4807.42 million, which was 8.6% of its Risk-Weighted Assets as against Taka 3540.51 million as on 31st December 2002. This was Taka 2993.24 million in 2001. Taka 2,671.06 million in 2000 Taka 1,659.26 million in 1999, Taka 1517.55 in 1998, Taka 1,429.86 million in 1997, Taka 1241.05 in 1996, Taka 813.09 million in 1995, Taka 420.06 million in 1993, Taka 537.35 million in 1994 and Taka 420.06 million in 1993.

 

National and International Ratings of IBBL:

 

Bangladesh Bank, several credit rating agencies, has evaluated IBBL’s past performances home & abroad and by the local press.

 

International Press:

 

“In the midst of a difficult Banking system known to be plagued by high non performing loans (NPLs), one could easily conclude that it would be difficult to find a bank that is different from norm. However, IBBL provides a refreshing change.

‘BANK ATCH’ a New York based international Credit Rating Agency in its January 30, 1998 issue. “As a market leader offering banking services based on the Islamic rule of Shariah, IBBL’s profitability trend has been quite impressive. The Bank’s ability to keep its return on asset (ROA) well above the industry’s average reflected its resilience to possible shocks in the banking system. Concerns over massive NPLs and under provisioning are common amongst local banks. But this seems well resolved in IBBL. IBBL’s good performance and solid capital base have indeed provided refreshing change found within a banking system saddled and held back by huge NPLs” the above agency continued to comment to comment in the same issue.

 

National Press:

It is one of a few local banks according to CAMEL (Capital, Assets, Management, and Earnings & Liquidity) rating made by the Bangladesh Bank. It holds the highest amount of liquidity among all banks and its ability to keep return on assets at 1.07 percent is will above the banking sector’s average of 0.33 percent – the financial Express, Dhaka commented in its issue of May 28, 1998.

“The Holiday “in its 29th August, 1997 issue carried out report under the heading “Setting a precedence of sound banking” and commented “While the country’s banking system is burdened with bad debt portfolios and also suffers form a liquidity shortage, the Islami Bank Bangladesh Ltd. (IBBL) has created a unique precedence by improving its reserve and deposit positions substantially, making handsome profits, and offering attractive dividends to its share holders and depositors”.

 

IBBL’s World rating:

As per Bankers Almanacs ( January 2001 edition) published by the Reed Business Information, Windsor Court, England, IBBL’s world Rank is 1771 among 3000 banks selected by them. This position was 1902 among 4500 selected banks as on January 1999 edition.

IBBL’s country Rank is 5 among 39 banks as per ratings made by the above Almanac on the basis of IBBL’s Financial Statements of the year 2001.

 

Perspective: Award and Prizes: International & National:

 

IBBL was awarded for several times by international & national organizations.

The Global Finance, a reputed London based quarterly magazine, awarded IBBL as the best bank of the country for year 1999 and 2000. IBBL has got the 2nd prize of National Export Fare for its pavilion of service Organization in 1985.

 

Membership of Different Organization/ Chamber Local:

Local:

  1. Bangladesh Institution of Bank Management (BIBM)
  2. The Institution of Bankers Bangladesh (IBB)
  3. Bangladesh Association of Banks (BAB)
  4. Bangladesh Foreign Exchange Dealers’ Association (BAFEDA)
  5. Central Shariah Board for Islamic Banks of Bangladesh
  6. 6.      International Chamber of Commerce – Bangladesh

Foreign:

    1. International Association of Islamic Banks (IAIB), Jeddah, K. S. A.
    2. According and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions (AAOIFI), Manama. Bahrain.
    3. General Council of Islamic Banks & Financial Institutions (GCIBFI)

4. Manama, Bahrain (IBBL is a member of its Executive Council.

 

 

Organizational Chart:

 

Chairman

 

 

 

 

 

   Vice Chairman

 

 

 

Directors

 

 

 

 

ExecutivePresident

 

 

 

 

 

Secretary

 

 

Organization Chart of Darus Salam Road Branch

 

 

 

 AssistantVice President

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Asst. OfficerGrade III
Asst. OfficerGrade III
Asst. OfficerGrade III
Asst. OfficerGrade III

 

 

 

Functional Department:

 

The Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited (IBBL), Darus Salam Road Branch is headed by one Senior Vice President (SVP). There are several section headed by some most skilled and experienced person under the SVP. These are:

  • Account Opening Section
  • P.O, T.D.R, M.S.B, M.S.S, Haji Section
  • D.D, T.T Section
  • Cash Section
  • Foreign Exchange Section
  • Investment Section
  • Clean Cash Section
  • Clearing House Section
  • Transaction Entry Section
  • Transfer & Locker Service Section

 

Chapter-Three:General Banking System

 

 

Introduction:

 

There are different types of product of IBBL-

  • Al- wahdia Current A/C (Individual)
  • Al wahdia Current A/C (Firm)
  • MSA (Mudarabah special A/C)
  • MSS (Mudarabah special Savings)
  • MMPDS (Mudarabah Monthly profit deposit Scheme)
  • Mudarabah Hajj A/C

 

IBBL perform deposit mobilization under two principal- they are-

  1. Mudarabah principal
  2. Al-wadiah principal

 

KYC (Know your Customer) – This type of form is mandatory for opening Account.

For opening A/C the following things are mandatory-

  • Commissioner Certificate
  • Two copy passport size photo of client.
  • One copy nominee’s photo.
  • Sign of introducer is verified

 

Debit Advice: Suppose the Darus Salam Road Branch of IBBL has gotten the cheque of some clearing house. Then Darus Salam Road Branch will send debit advice to local office for collection. That means Darus Salam Road Branch do debit the local office branch and local office branch will debit Darus Salam Road Branch.

 

Credit Advice: When local office make a payment in favour of Darus Salam Road Branch (assume), then Darus Salam Road Branch, will send credit advice to local office because local office is accounts payable to Darus Salam Road Branch.

 

OBC- Outward bill collection when cheque is required to collect the bill outside the clearing zone, the OBC is used.

When bill is collected, then-

 

Instrument A/C                       –           Dr.

Client A/C                               –           Cr.

Pay order: When client place the cheque at branch for pay order, the treatment is –

Client A/C                               –           Dr.

Pay order                                 –           Cr.

Income (Service+Comm)       –        Cr.

S/D (Vat on pay order)           –         Cr.

For T.T, D.D & pay order, clients account is necessary at branch.

 

FAD: Financial administration division: The transaction is occurred within same clearing house that is calculated at the end of the year finally to find out the r3eceivable and payable at FAD in favour of branch.

 

Cheque dishonour: When any branch send the cheque of Darus Salam Road Branch to clearing house (may be internal clearing house or Bd. Bank clearing house) for collection, then clearing house will provide debit advice (with cheque) to Darus Salam Road Branch. If Darus Salam Road Branch response this advice, automatically local office is credited to Darus Salam Road Branch. Then, if cheque is honoured, there is no problem. But it cheque is dishonoured for any reason, then Darus Salam Road Branch, will provide debit advice to local office. If local office response this advice, then Kawaran Bazar Branch is credited to local office. So, ultimate effect is zero.

 

Cheque may be dishonoured :

  1. If the cheque leaf is toned.
  2. If there is no date.
  3. If there is no similarity between the amount and word.

 

To Open A New Account:

This is a period of keen competition among banks. Most of the commercial banks compete with one another in tapping the savings of the public by means of purchasing of different types of financial product. These products are known as secondary securities, which shows claim against the financial institutions. Popularly these products are known as deposit; of different kinds and of various maturities. The most popular products are current-deposit (CD), savings bank deposit (SD), fixed deposit, short-term deposit etc.

 

General Practice at Regarding Accounts:

 

Account Opening Register:

 

After fulfilling all the requirements for opening account necessary entries are given in the account opening register. There are several registers for several accounts as MSA, AWCA and MTDR etc. Date of opening, name of the account holder, nature of the business, address, initial deposit and introducer’s information are recorded in that register. New accounts number is given from the list of new numbers provided by the computer department.

 

Check Book:

Checkbook is issued to the new customer after seven days of opening account. Two separate checkbooks are given for current and saving accounts. AWCA accounts check book consists 25 and 50 leafs, while MSA account checkbook has 10 leafs. There has a check book issue register in this regard; where check book number, leaf number, date issue etc. information are kept on the register. All the necessary numbers are the sent to the computer department to give entry in the program.

 

Incidental Charge:

Taka 10 or 50 = each for twice a year is debited from customers AWCA account for rendering service to him. Taka 50 = each is debited from customers account for providing him solvency certificate.

 

Profit:

Profit is the price of product, which is determined by the market forces. Every bank offers a competitive price to attract depositors.

 

General Characteristics of Deposit Account:

 

Al-Wayadia Current A/C (AWCA):

AWCA accounts are unproductive in nature as far as banks loan able investment fund is concerned sufficient fund has to be kept in liquid form, as current deposits are demand liabilities. Thus huge portion of this fund becomes nonperforming. For this reason banks do not pay any of AWCA account holder. Business and companies are the main customers of this product.

 

Mudaraba Savings Account (MSA):

As per Bangladesh Bank instruction 90% of SA deposits are treated as time liability and 10% of it as demand liability. In EBL there is a restriction about drawing money from SB account but anytime holder may draw money of any amount with prior notice, generally householder and individuals are the clients of this account.

 

Mudaraba Short Notice A/C (MSN):

MSNA accounts can be treated as semi term deposit. Deposit should be kept in these accounts for at least seven days to get interest of MSNA accounts is less then SB accounts. 5.5% generally profit, but may increase to 6% or more depending on the fund. Check book is issued them but frequent use of checkbook is discouraged. Government organization, big corporate house and banks are generally the clients of this account. The volume of this account is generally large and notice has to be given to draw money.

 

Mudaraba Term Deposit Receipt (MTDR):

Fixed deposit is of two kind midterm deposit (MTD) and term deposit (TD) instrument whose maturity period is within one year are know as midterm deposit MTD and those above one year are considered as term deposit (TD). Calculation of profit TDR and provisioning regarding this is quite complicated issue. Profit is calculation at each maturity date and provision is made on that. Also at the month and provision of profit is mode.

Analysis of Deposit (Department of General  Banking  of IBBL):

On the date of 30.06.2004, among the total deposit of the banking sector, 51.08% comes from nationalized commercial bank and specialized bank. 41.99% comes from private commercial bank (including also 10.02% of IBBL). And 6.93% comes from foreign commercial bank, whereas it was respectively 54.29%, 38.72%, and 6.99% on 30.06.2003.

Here we see that, in the year 2004, contribution of private commercial bank to the deposit of the banking sector has been increased. Among all private commercial bank, contribution of IBBL is very high, which is

10.02      *100

41.99

= 23.86%.

At that time, there was 30 private commercial bank.

 

 GROWTH OF DEPOSIT: 2000-2005

 

FIG -1: This graph shows the growth of deposit from the year 2000 to 2005.

 

Local Remittance:

IBBL sells and purchase P.O., D.D. and T.T. to its customers only. IT does not offer remittance service frequently to those other than its customer.

 

Pay Order (PO):

Pay order is and instrument that is used to remit money within a city through banking channel the instruments are generally safe as most of them are crossed.

 

Issuing Of a Pay Order (P.O.):

A customer can purchase pay order in different ways:

By

Bills Payable (P.O.) A/C. ………….. .Cr.

Income A/C commission on Remittance…Cr.

By Account Client A/C… …………….. ……Dr.

By Transfer Head Office/ Other department’s client A/C.—Dr.

 

Charges for issuing P.O.:

 

Service Charge:

Tk. 1 to Tk. 10,000                             Þ   Tk. 10/-

Tk, 10,001 to Tk, 1,00,000                 Þ   Tk, 20/-

Tk. 1,00,001 to Tk. 5,00,000              Þ   Tk. 30/-

Tk, 5,00,001 to Tk, 10,00,000            Þ   Tk, 40/-

Tk. 10,00,001 and above                    Þ   Tk. 50/-

 

Vat:

15% of principle amount

 

Demand Draft (D.D.)

 

Demand Draft is very much popular instrument for remitting money from one corners of a country another. The instrument is basically used for transfer and payment. Difference between pay order and demand draft is in terms of place only P.O. is used for remitting money within the city whereas D.D. is used for within the country. D.D. too constitutes current liability on the part of a bank. At IBBL D.D. is not sold to people other than its customer.

 

Charges for Issuing D.D.:

 

Service Charge:

Tk. 1 to Tk. 10,000                 Þ Tk. 107-

Above Tk. 10,000                   Þ 1 Tk. for every 1,000

 

Vat:

15% of principle amount

 

Telegraphic Transfer (T.T.):

 

Telegraphic transfer is one of the fastest means of transferring money from one branch to another or from one to another. The T.T. issuing bank instructs its counterpart by tested telex message regarding remittance of money. No instrument is given for T.T. unless both parties have account, as money is transferred.

 

Collecting:

 

Clearing:

As far safety is concerned customers get crossed check for the transaction. As we known crossed check cannot be enchased for counter, rather it has through been collected through banking channel i.e. clearing. A client of IBBL received a check of another bank, which is located within the clearing rage; deposit the check in the account at IBBL. Now IBBL will he will not the money until the check is honored.

 

Outward Bill for Collection (OBC):

 

Customers deposit check, drafts etc. for collection, attaching with their deposit sleep. Instrument within the range of clearing are collected through local clearing house, but the other which are outside the clearing range are collected through OBC mechanism. A customer of IBBL principal branch Local Office Dhaka is depositing a check, of Sonali Bank, Cox’s Bazar. Now as a collecting bank IBBL principal branch will perform the following task;

 

1.   Received seal on deposit slip.

2.   IBBL Local Office Principal Branch crossing indicating them as collecting banks,

3.   Endorsement given “Payees A/C will be credited on realization.

4.   Entry on register, from where a controlling number is given.

Collecting bank can collect it either by its branch of by the drawer’s bank. They will forward the bill then to that particular branch. OBC number will be given on the following letter. Now following procedures will take place in case of the following two cases.

 

Bills (Toileted Through Branch):

 

If the bill is forwarded to a branch they will collect it through IBC procedure. Collecting branch will receive and I.B.C.A from that particular agent branch according treatment from the angle of collecting branch will be.

 

Ho> A/C concerned branch…………………..Dr.

Customer A/C ……………………………………Cr.

Income A/C commission; postage………………..Cr

 

In this case commission will be charged by the collecting branch, not the agent branch.

Bills Collected Through Drawer’s Bank:

 

Accounting treatment for the collecting branch will be

 

a.      Clearing ………………………………………..Dr.

b.     Customer A/C………………………………….Cr.

 

Inward Bills for Collection (IBC):

 

In this case bank will work as an agent of the collection bank. The branch receives a forwarding letter and the bill. Next steps are

1. Entry in the I.B.C. registers number given

2. Endorsement given -“Our branch endorsement confirmed”

3. The instrument is sent to clearing for collection……………………Dr.

4. Miscellaneous Creditor A/C OBC………………………………….Cr.

Cash:

Cash section demonstrates liquidity strength of a bank. It also sensitive as it deals with liquid money. Maximum concentration is given while wording on this section. As far as safety is concerned special precaution is also taken. Tense situation prevails if there is any imbalance in the case account.

 

Vault:

AH cash, instruments (P.O., D.D. and Check) and other valuables are kept in the vault is insured up to Tk. 4 crore with local insurance company. If cash stock goes beyond its limit of Tk. 4 crore, the excess money is transferred to Bangladesh Bank if there is shortage of cash during transaction period money is transferred to drawn from the central bank. There are three keys of the vault, which are given to three seniors most officers. Daily, as estimated amount of cash brought out from the vault, for transaction purpose. No more than Tk. 4 crore brought at once from the vault, on a single day.

 

Teller Customer Relationship:

In a bank a person who delivers and receives cash from the cash counter is known as teller, a customer meets most of the time in a bank with a teller on the counter. So, teller should hold certain quality

  • Should be friendly.
  • Provide prompt service.
  • Be accurate in his task.

In short a teller should be efficient, otherwise he has to pay.

 

Cash Packing and Handling:

Cash packing and handling needs a lot of care as any mistake may lead to disaster. Packing after banking hour when the counter is closed, cash are packed according to denomination. Notes are counted several times and packed in bundle, stetted and stumped with initial.

 

Evening Banking:

After the banking hour the cash counter is closed. But sometimes customers come to draw or deposit money after the service hour. However, their money is received or aid recorded in the next daybook. This is known as evening banking.

 

LEADERSHIP MANAGEMENT APPROACH AND STYLE

 

IBBL and Eastern Bank Ltd. follow participation leadership approach. Work accomplishment is from committed people with interdependence through a common stake in organization purposed with trust and respect. They are the managers who display in their actions the highest possible dedication both to people and to dork. They are the real term manager’s who are able to mesh the service needs of the enterprise with the needs of the individuals.

 

TECHNOLOGY AT ISLAMI BANK BANGLADESH LIMITED

 

With rapid change in communication banking worldwide has experienced a tremendous transformation and it continually being shaped to shit changes of industrialization of the society. Unfortunately, Bangladesh has missed much of the excitement and we are virtually unaware of the improvements in banking services hi other developed countries.

IBBL has now brought a part of that development made through improved computer and communication technology. Clients of IBBL will now enjoy service quality service quality that is quite upgraded and to some extent unique.

 

PERSONAL POLICIES

 

Personal policies at IBBL are not clearly defined in Dhaka. However the broad outlines of the policy ate

  • To establish contingency plants for local staff protection
  • To develop programs to cross train personal for added flexibility

 

CORPORATE CULTURE

(Ideology, Values, Beliefs, Philosophy, etc.)

 

They have standard set of rules for ethical guidelines. The core idea of it is to “Do the right thing”. The right thing may not obvious at all the time. They are to look after community and serve them, avoid conflict of interest whenever possible. The idea at the Citicorp is to build a congenial atmosphere and encourage teamwork and progress collectively.

IBBL has a good corporate citizen abided by a set of core values. Some can be classified as traditional values such as security, trust worthiness, integrity and confidentiality. Others are perhaps more temporary. They reflect IBBL to it’s customers to be

  • Responsible to their needs.
  • Flexible in approach
  • Professional in manner
  • Always striving excellence

The major corporate philosophy of IBBL is to efficiently manage the risk involved and maintain the stability of the bank to the greatest extent possible.

 

ORGANIZATIONAL PRACTICES

 

IBBL is quite conservation in their organization polices. These policies are followed by Citicorp and are intended to protect the interest of stakeholders. They go through extensive market research before launching any new product. They try to minimize risk by acquiring as much information as possible.

 

MANAGING PUBLIC AFFAIRS

They have a very definite view about public affairs management. The bank wants the name franchise to be a symbol of status. Retail bank is still not in operations and individual account is discouraged with high minimum balance requirements.

 

PRESS RELATIONS

 

They also have a clear view of press relations. They are not going for an advertisement in the national dailies. Their motto is to be focused to a target group. First they identify their target customers and they approach him/ her directly. So, they do not need any promotion to attract the customers.

 

 

Chapter-Four: Overall Process of Telegraphic Transfer (TT)

 

TELEGRAPHIC (TELEPHONIC) TRANSFER

 

Introduction:

Telegraphic transfer is by far the quickest method of transferring funds from one place to another .Some times, the remitter of the funds requires the money to be available to the payee immediately. In that case the banker is requested by the remitter to remit the funds telegraphically. It is an instruction conveyed by telegraph/ telex/telephone to the drawee branch for paying certain amount of money to a specified person.

 

Issuance of TT:

TT application form (F-22) to be filled in by the remitter with full particulars. Money to be received in cash or by debiting remitters account with commission and Telex/Telephone charges/ entry should be given in B-44 branch wise serially under supervision of authorized official. Message to be passed immediately of the drawee branch under secret test by Telex, Telephone, Telegram followed by IBCA for confirmation. Cost memo F-23 to be issued and handed over to the client.

 

Charges for Issuing T.T:

Telephone Charge:

Tk. 30.00

Service Charge:

Tk. 1 to Tk. 10,000                 Þ Tk. 10.00

Above Tk. 10,000                   Þ 1 Tk. for every 1,000

Vat:

15% of principle amount

Accounting Entries for issuance of TT:

 

Cash / Remitter’s A/c…………………….. Dr.

IBGA……………………………………..Cr.

Commission ………………………………Cr.

Telex / Telephone Charges A/c……………Cr.

The amount transferred by TT is either credited to the account of the beneficiary, if he maintains an account, or paid by means of a TT payment order if he does not maintain an account. Cash is paid to the beneficiary on proper identification, if has no account.

Accounting Entries for Payment of TT:

One receipt of TT message test number should be decoded immediately. Then voucher to be passed as under through B-51 duly authenticated by authorized officials.

IBGA A/c…………………………Dr.

TT Payable A/c………………..Cr

TT Payable A/c……………………Dr.

Clients  A/c or PO   A/c…….…..Cr

X Table:

To forward a TT   a serial number with its variable number of X table is written on the application form of TT. This number is checked by authorized officer. This serial number and variable number must be similar to that of Y Table. An example of X Table is given below:

Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited                  Date:

Branches Control Department

Head Office, Dhaka

From: Darus Salam Road-210                            Table X                                                To: Barisal-111

 

SL. No. Variable No. Date with Initial SL. No. Variable No. Date with Initial SL. No. Variable No. Date with Initial
1 24 23 82 55 24
2 45 24 63 56 45
3 65 25 69 57 65
4 25 26 14 58 25
5 36 27 74 59 36
6 45 28 17 60 45
7 87 29 93 61 87
8 78 30 31 62 78
9 45 31 79 63 45
10 12 32 64 64 12
11 32 33 31 65 15
12 58 34 13 66 35
13 15 35 46 67 75
14 35 36 76 68 95
15 75 37 87 69 65
16 95 38 78 70 45
17 65 39 45 71 35
18 45 40 12 72 33
19 35 41 32 73 64
20 33 42 58 74 22
21 64 43 11 75 78
22 22 44 22 76 98
23 78 45 79 77 64
24 98 46 64 78 78
25 64 47 35 79 98
26 78 48 32 80 32
27 98 49 97 81 12
28 32 50 13 82 24
29 12 51 91 83 26
20 24 52 61 84 67
21 26 53 17 85 11
22 67 54 36 86 38

 

Y Table:

When a TT is received the serial number and variable number written of the application form is checked according to Y table. If the serial number and variable number is not similar then the money is not to be paid to the client. An example of Y table is given below:

Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited               Date:

Branches Control Department

Head Office, Dhaka

From: Barisal-111                                        Table Y                                         To: Darus Salam Road-210

 

SL. No. Variable No. Date with Initial SL. No. Variable No. Date with Initial SL. No. Variable No. Date with Initial
1 24 23 82 55 24
2 45 24 63 56 45
3 65 25 69 57 65
4 25 26 14 58 25
5 36 27 74 59 36
6 45 28 17 60 45
7 87 29 93 61 87
8 78 30 31 62 78
9 45 31 79 63 45
10 12 32 64 64 12
11 32 33 31 65 15
12 58 34 13 66 35
13 15 35 46 67 75
14 35 36 76 68 95
15 75 37 87 69 65
16 95 38 78 70 45
17 65 39 45 71 35
18 45 40 12 72 33
19 35 41 32 73 64
20 33 42 58 74 22
21 64 43 11 75 78
22 22 44 22 76 98
23 78 45 79 77 64
24 98 46 64 78 78
25 64 47 35 79 98
26 78 48 32 80 32
27 98 49 97 81 12
28 32 50 13 82 24
29 12 51 91 83 26
20 24 52 61 84 67
21 26 53 17 85 11
22 67 54 36 86 38

 

TT Application Form:

                                                                                                                                T.T. Application Form                            Date: ___________                                                                                                                T.T. No: _________The EVP/SVP/VP/AVP/Manager,Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited____________________  BranchPlease remit by Wire/Wireless the foolwing amount as per particulars given hereunder:I/they tender herewith Cash / Cheque No…………for  Tk…………….( Taka………….) only.It is understood that this remittance is being sent by you at my/our risk and that you will not be held liable for and mistake, oomission, delay, etc, which may arise in the transmission thereof or misinterpretation of the message at destination.
Name of the payee and address Instruction of Payment At(Name of Drawee Branch) Amount
       Taka         Ps
ADVISE & PAY/ CREDIT PAYEE’S ACCOUNT NOMSA/AWCA/SND

Taka____________________________Name of Applicant_________________Address__________________________                                                  _______________A/C No.____________ Land/ Cell Phone No.______________          Applicant’s Signature

Commission/                  Tk.Exchange Tel/ Postage   Tk.VAT                        Tk.
Total                        Tk.

______________        ____________    _____________         Receiving Cashier           Authorized Officer     Authorized Officer

TT Inward & Cost Memo:

ISLAMI BANK BANGLADESH LIMITEDDARUS SALAM ROAD BRANCH, MIRPUR-1, DHAKA                                                                              T.T. ( INWARD)                                       Date ……………………..
DEBIT

IBG A/C-( Contra )…………….. to Darus Salam Road B.Dhaka / Via………………….Test No…………………Date………………T.T. No……………..Time…………………Taka                             (In Word)…………………………………………………………Favouring…………………………………………………………………………………..MSA/CA/SND/MSS/Investment A/c No……………………….Rpt:……………………Contra………..Message Conveyed by (Name)……………………Desig:………………. ___________       _________________       _________________        ___________________Receiving Officer            Test Agreed by                        Authorized Officer                     Authorized Officer       As No.                          As No.                                       As No.                                             As No.

 

COST MEMO

ISLAMI BANK BANGLADESH LIMITED

COST MEMOISLAMI BANK BANGLADESH LIMITED                                ____________________________Branch           Date.___________                                                                                                                No.____________Received from Mr./Ms./ M/s_______________________________________________Towards TT/Draft/P.O.No.____________Issued on___________for Tk.____________Exchange/Commission at________Percent/Minimum                         Tk.____________Cost of Telegram/ Telex /Postage                                                          Tk.____________VAT____________________________________________________Tk.____________Total Taka (in words)_____________________________________Favouring______________________A/C NO.__________________                                                          Officer          EVP/SVP/VP/AVP/Manager

BRANCH

Income from TT:

During last five quarters (January 1, 2006 to March 31, 2007) the income (Tk in ’000) from TT is increasing except from first quarter to second quarter. After second quarter the income from TT is increasing significantly. A graph is shown under below:

Chapter-Five: CAMEL RATING (Comparison of IBBL with some other Islami Bank of Bangladesh)

CAMEL RATING (Inter Bank Comparison):

 

Capital Adequacy Ratio :( In lac)

 

BANK IBBL AL-ARAFAH EXIM
YEAR 2005 2004 2005 2004 2005 2004
Capital Adequacy Ratio (Shareholders Equity & Reserve/ Risk Weighted Assets) 8331132206/122880348 6691114318/102149282158 1220165039/15336888197 957263069/12874613338 1912421914/33716699328 1400004740/24355751451
0.067 0.065 0.079 0.074 0.056 0.057
CAMEL 4 4 3 3 5 5

 

BANK IBBL AL-ARAFAH EXIM
YEAR 2005 2004 2005 2004 2005 2004
12 6885/114664 7674/95515 2473/14116 1809/11917 348/31804 3877/22955
0.06 0.08 0.175 0.15 0.010 0.169
CAMEL 4 2 1 1 5 1

Asset Quality :( In lac)
Return on Assets (In Lac)

 

BANK IBBL AL-ARAFAH EXIM
YEAR 2005 2004 2005 2004 2005 2004
Return on Asset(Net Profit/ Total Asset) 1122/122880 1013/102149 262/15336 154/12874 555/33716 381/24355
0.009 0.010 0.017 0.012 0.016 0.015
CAMEL 1 1 1 1 1 1

 

 

 

Investment Deposit Ratio: (In Lac)

 

BANK IBBL AL-ARAFAH EXIM
YEAR 2005 2004 2005 2004 2005 2004
Investment Deposit Ratio( Deposit /Liquid Asset) 107082/117374 872205/97858 116403/114704 10108/8150 28319/1633 19078/1542
0.91 0.89 1.01 1.31 17.034 12.37
CAMEL 1 1 1 1 1 1

 

Ability to meet Current Liability: (In Lac)

 

BANK IBBL AL-ARAFAH EXIM
YEAR 2005 2004 2005 2004 2005 2004
Ability to meet Current Liability( Deposit/ Loans & Advance ) 107082/6885 87225/7674 11643/2473 10108/1809 28319/3485 19078/3877
15.55 11.37 4.7 5.58 8.1 4.92
CAMEL 5 5 5 5 5 5

 

CAMEL RATING PERFORMANCE INDICATOR:

 

CAMEL RATING 4+4+1+1+5=15/5 =3 4+2+1+1+5=13/5=2.6 3+1+1+1+5=11/5=2.2 3+1+1+1+5=11/5=2.2 5+5+1+1+5=17/5=3.4 5+1+1+1+5=13/5=2.6

 

OVERAL CAMEL RATING:

 

Average Value Bank’s Position
1- 1.4 Strong
1.5-2.4 Satisfactory
2.5-3.4 Exact
3.5-4.4 Marginal
4.5-5 Unsatisfactory

 

 

 

 

COMENT ON CAMEL RATING:

 

  1. From Camel calculation we can observe that IBBL and EXIM bank are performing in the scale of “Exact” level.
  2. From inter-bank comparison it is also observable that Al-Arafah bank is the top performing bank among the three banks, performing in the scale of “Satisfactory” level.
  3. From time comparison it is also observable that performance of Al-Arafah remains the stable over the period of 2004 and 2005.

 

The performance of IBBL and EXIM bank deteriorated from 2004 to 2005 though both remained in the same scale “Exact

Chapter-Six: Problems and Prospects of IBBL

PROBLEMS OF ISLAMI BANK:

 

The Islami Bank have and continue to take considerable problems in their operations and other matters related to their relations with other banks and institutions ranging from managerial, financial and regulatory to legal extent, such as:

 

1)      Shortage of professionals conversant with Islami Banking.

 

2)      Total lack of familiarity by international financial and non-financial sector with Islami Products.

3)     Severe competition in the financial sector.

 

3)      Inadequate track record of Islami banking itself in particular and Islami Banks in general.

4)      Lack of professional image in the market.

 

5)      Absence of infrastructure for Islami trade financing on international basis.

 

6)      An offshore banking unit status of some of the major Islami Institutions without prospects of doing business in the home market.

 

7)      Economic slow down and political situation in some of the countries.

 

8)      Non-acceptance by national laws of many countries of the provisions of Shariah, and

 

9)      Relatively under-developed corporate sector and capital market in Islami countries.

 

PROSPECTS OF ISLAMI BANKING IN BANGLADESH:

 

 

In spite of the present limitations, Islami banking system has tremendous potential and prospect in Bangladesh.

 

1)   The successful lunching and operations of Islamic banks has established the fact that banking without interest is feasible

.

2)   The lunching of Islami bank has shown the Islami money market in the country.

 

3)   Islami banks have brought together many depositor sand entrepreneurs under their fold and coverage, these depositors and entrepreneurs so long avoided interest- based banking on grounds of religious injunctions.

 

 

We see that the IBBL is growing very rapidly in our country. But our rules and regulation for banking systems is not Shariah based. So, when the govt. makes a rules &regulation

For Islamic banking it will be growing more rapidly than present time.

 

 

The gradual and successful  globalization of Islamic banking coupled with growing awareness ness of the people about its financial and social benefits makes its

Clear that the next century is going to be the century of Islamic banking.

Chapter-Seven: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

Conclusion

Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited (IBBL) was incorporated on 13, March, 1983 as a public company with limited liability under the companies act, 1913. The bank started functioning with effect from 30, March, 1983. IBBL is the first interest (riba) free banking in South Asia. The establishment of this bank conducted new age in Bangladesh, the 3rd largest Muslim country in the world.

 

The bank is committed to run all its activities as per Islamic Shariah. IBBL through its steady process and continued success has, by now, earned the reputation of being one of the leading private sector banks of the country. The bank has shown steady process in this important sector. Main items of import (by the help of IBBL) are machinery, garments, fabrics and accessories, ships for scarping, rice pharmaceuticals etc. Whereas main items of exports are jute goods, readymade garments, leather, frozen fish, fertilizer, etc. Still now hear about 301 Islamic banking and financial institutions in about 49 countries of Asia, Africa, Europe, America and countries like Pakistan, U.K., U.S.A., Germany, Argentina, Denmark, Luxembourg, Switzerland and India have been established. The banking system of Pakistan and Iran was totally remodeled on the basis of Islamic Shariah services.

 

IBBL will be more effective in our economy by lunching new financial products to attract deposit as Consumer Credit Scheme, Pension Scheme, Child Education Scheme,  Plastic Money ATM and Online service etc .

 

Recommendation

After observing the operation procedure of IBBL, I recommend the following:

 

IBBL should launch more online service.

 

IBBL should launch new financial products to attract deposit, as Consumer Credit Scheme, Child Education Scheme, and Plastic Money etc. IBBL can also lunch ATM as diversification.

 

Marketing Division:

To increase the faith of former mentioned depositors and people, IBBL should convince them in the best manner, so that market share can be captured. A separate marketing division should be set up for this matter.

 

Diversify Assets Portfolio:

Leading portfolio of IBBL should be diversified. Not to concentrate or give weight only in working capital financing.

 

IT’S Facilities:

IT facilities of IBBL are not satisfactory good. Computer system which owned by branch are not up to date, not sufficient and moreover some of computer system not work properly when they are needed. There is no sufficient and high bandwidth Internet connection available in the bank. So, IBBL should develop Information Technology to ensure better service for the customer and support communication with outside.

 

Bibliography

Annual Report of Islami Bank Bangladesh Ltd. – 2004.

Annual Report of  Al Arafah Bank  Ltd. – 2004.

Annual Report of Exim Bank Ltd. – 2004.

Quaran – Al Quaran (Meaning of the Quaran) : Translation into English by M. M. Pickttal London : Al-Birr foundation

 

Ashrafi, Moulana Md. Fazlur Rahman{2002},“Shoodh O Islami Banking,”Mahin Publications,Dhaka,Bangladesh,p-181.

Ahmed, Dr. Habib (2004), “Islamic Securities for Corporate Finance”, Paper presented in the International Seminar on Financial Management in an Islamic Perspective held in Dhaka, Bangladesh, December 21-23, 2004, pp – 1-14.

Ahmad, Dr. Mahmood (2004), “Cost of Capital from Islamic Perspective: An Analysis                  for the Entrepreneurs”, paper presented in the International Seminar on Financial   Management in an Islamic Perspective held in Dhaka, Bangladesh, December 21-23, 2004. Pp- 1-18.

 

Anwar, Mohammed (1997), “Modeling interest-free Economy”, Hernden, VA; The International Institute of Islamic thought.

Bengali. M. Rafiq (1999), “Issues in Islamic versus Conventional Banking, Islamic Banking and Finance – The Concept, The practice and The Challenge, Imtiaz Uddin Ahmed (ed), Muslim Society of North America, Conference and Program series. P – 63.

Chapra, M.U. (1992), “Islam and the economic challenge,” Leicester (UK): The Islamic Foundation.

Chakma, Pradanendu Bikash, Islam, Md. Serajul and Karmaker, Shyam Sundar (1995), “Managerial performance of Islamic Banking: A Critical Review”, The Journal of Business Studies, Faculty of Business Studies, University of Dhaka, Volume-16(2), pp – 85-102.

 

Idris, Abu Sayed Md. “Shariah Concept and Principles of Islamic Banking and Finance”, Class Lecture presented in IBTRA, Dhaka, Bangladesh held in 26 January, 2004.

Kalf, Monzer and Tariqullah Khan (1992), “ Principles of Islamic Financing”, Research paper no. 16, Islamic Research and Training Institute, Islamic Development Bank, Jeddah.

Khan, Tariqullah (1991), “Contractual International Investments: Relevance for Islamic Economics, Discussion paper no. 4, Islamic Research and Training Institute Islamic Banking in Bangladesh: A Case of, Islamic Development Bank, Jeddah.

Kotler, Philip( 2004),  “  Marketing management” Millennium Edition,

 

Mannan M.A., “Islamic Economics: Theory and Practices” Lahore, Pakistan.

 

Mirakhor, AMBAs (1997), “Progress and Challenges of Islamic Banking”, Review of Islamic Banking, Vol. 4, No. 1, PP- 1-11.

Paramahansa Foundation (regd), “ Human Resource management”

 

.Siddiqi, Mohammad Nejatullah (1981), “Muslim Economic Thinking”, A Study of Contemporary Literature, The Islamic Foundation, U. K. pp- 28-38.The Financial Express, 03 January, 2005.

S.N.N. Naqvi (1994), “Islam; Economics and Society,” Kegan Paul International, London and New York.

 

Sadeq, Dr. Abul Hasan (2004), “Economic Development in Islam,”Islamic Foundation Bangladesh, p-130.

 

Uddin,Md Jashim (2005), “Concept of Islamic Banking with a special reference               to Islami Bank Bangladesh Ltd.”An unpublished article,submitted to BIBM,Dhaka ,Bangladesh.

 

Usmani, M. Taqi (1999), An introduction to Islamic Finance, Idaratul Maarif, Karachi, Pakistan.

 

Vogel F. and Hayes: S (1998), “Islamic Law and Finance – Religion, Risk and Return, Kluer Law International, Singapore. p – 128.

 

Willett, Roger and Sulaiman, Maliah (2001), “Islam, Economic Rationalism and Accounting”, The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences, Vol. – 18, No. – 2, pp – 61-93.

 

Yilmaz, Rasim (2004), “Islamic Structured finance for the Government Project and Debt financing”, Proceedings of the international Seminar on Financial Management in an Islamic Perspective held in 21-23 December 2004 at Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Notes and Guidelines of Workshops

 

Handout provided by IBTRA

 

http://wwwwww.google.com//

http://wwwwww.idb.com//

http://www. Islamibankbd.com//

 

 

 

 

 

 

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